Wednesday, 27 July 2011

To make a hypothesis

How to construct or make a hypothesis?

First, you must understand that a hypothesis is a statement that relates a manipulated variable with a responding variable.
Therefore, you must be able to identify the manipulated variable and the responding variable for an experiment.

For example, in experiment to determine the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and sulphuric acid.

The manipulated variable is temperature,  and the responding variable is rate of reaction.

Therefore, the statement of hypothesis is: When the temperature of sodium thiosulphate increases, the rate of reaction with sulphuric acid increases.

Monday, 25 July 2011

Operational Definition

Operational definition is a statement that shows the "what you do and what you observe".

For example, the operational definition for coagulation of latex:

The "what you do" is... when acid is added to latex..

The "what you observe " is.... white solid is formed.

Therefore the operational definition for the coagulation of latex is ..When acid is added to latex, white solid is formed. (SPM 2008)

The operational definition for the neutralisation of acid or alkali could be... When acid is added to alkali with a few drops of phenolphthalein, the pink solution changes to colourless.

The operational definition for the reactivity of Group 1 elements towards water:
When a metal which is lower down in Group 1is put into a basin filled with water, the movement of the metal on the water surface is faster // more vigorous// the flame produced is bigger or brighter.

Teacher Norini hopes that you girls and boys have some idea now the meaning of operational definition. Well, you can always ask Teacher Norini if you don't.

Friday, 22 July 2011

Constructs in Paper 3

In Paper 3 Chemistry 4541/3, there are several constructs to be understood and solved.
For example, making hypothesis, aim @ problem statement, naming variables, to state the operational definition and so on.

Question for the day!

What is operational definition?

For example: Give the operational definition for the neutralisation of acid and alkali.

Teacher Norini will give the answer later....

Monday, 18 July 2011

Difference in pH value between hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid.

Answer
1. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
2. Therefore, acid can ionise completely in water
3. to produce high concentration of hydrogen ion
4. Ethanoic acid is a weak acid.
5. This acid can ionise partially in water
6. to produce low concentration of hydrogen ion
7.  When the concentration of hydrogen ion is higher, the pH value is lower

Salam boys and girls!

QUESTION FOR THE DAY.

Hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm-3 has 2 pH value.
Ethanoic acid 1.0 mol dm-3 has 6 pH value.

Explain the difference in pH value for the acids

Sunday, 17 July 2011

Salam. Sorry for the late reply for the answers to previous questions.
Ok, the answer to why alloy is harder than its's pure metal is:
1. Atoms of foreign element added to metal are of different size from atoms in pure metal.
2. These atoms will disrupt the orderly arrangement of the atoms in metal.
3. When force is applied, the foreign atoms will reduce the sliding of the atoms over each other.
4. Thus making alloy harder and stronger.

Pure metal is soft, malleable and ductile because:
1. Atoms are of the same size
2. Atoms are arranged  in layers and orderly manner.
3. When force is applied the layers of atoms can easily slide over each other

Note: make sure you know how to draw the diagram for the arrangement of atoms in alloy and pure metal

Wednesday, 13 July 2011

QUESTION FOR THE DAY

         WHY IS ALLOY HARDER THAN IT'S PURE METAL?


Teacher Norini will give the answer tomorrow.

Tuesday, 12 July 2011

More homework on Chemical Formulae and Equations

1(a) What is the meaning of empirical formula?
.....................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(ii) A carbon compound X has an empirical formula of CH2 and a molar mass of 70 g mol-1. Determine the molecular formula of compound X.



[3 marks]



(b) A group of students carried out an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.
(i) Draw the apparatus set up for the experiment.


[2 marks]
      Diagram 1 shows the results of the experiment.
            Mass of crucible   + lid                                     =  24.88 g
            Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon     =  25.12 g
            Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide       =  25.28 g
                                                             
                                                                Diagram 1

(ii) Based on Diagram 1, complete Table 1 and determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.

Element
Mg
O
Mass (g)



Number of moles



Simplest ratio of moles



Empirical Formula



Table 1
[6 marks]

(iii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in the experiment.
......................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(c) Why the process of heating, cooling and weighing are repeated until constant mass is obtained?

......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(d) Why this experiment is not suitable to be used to determine the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide?

......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

2. A group of students carried out  an experiment to determine the empirical formula  
     of  magnesium oxide.

Result :
                                 Mass of crucible + lid                                                               = 24.0 g
                                 Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon                          = 26.4 g
                                 Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide                            = 28.0 g

                
(a) What is meant by empirical formula?
      …………………………………………………………………………………………………............................
     
      ........................………………………………………………………………………………………………….     [1 mark]

(b) Based on the above results,
     Calculate the empirical formula of  magnesium oxide.

[3 markah]



(c) write the chemical equation for the reaction in the experiment.

................................................................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                        [1 mark]

(d) Why was the crucible lid opened once in a while during the experiment?
__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                      [ 1 mark]

(e) Metal X is placed below hydrogen in the reactivity series. You are required to carry out an experiment    to determine the empirical formula of the oxide of metal X. The apparatus provided are combustion  tube, glass tube, cork, Bunsen burner and porcelain dish.
(i) draw a labelled diagram of the set-up of the apparatus for the experiment.

[2 marks]
(ii) Describe the steps that should be taken to ensure that all the air in the combustion tube has
been expelled.
               _______________________________________________________________________________
                _______________________________________________________________________________
                _______________________________________________________________________________
                _______________________________________________________________________________
                _______________________________________________________________________________
                _______________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                                          [3 marks]




Homework for the weekend

TOPIK: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND
               EQUATION

1. The equation below represents the   reaction to extract aluminium from aluminium oxide.
             2Al3O3    4Al  +  3O2

      What is the mass of aluminium that can be extracted from 102 g of  aluminium oxide?
      [Relative atomic mass: O, 16 ; Al, 27]
  1. 13.5 g                          C.  54.0 g
  2. 27.0 g                          D.  108.0 g
4.          XCO3       XO  +  CO2

The equation above shows the action of heat on the carbonate salt of metal X.
How many moles of XCO3 are needed to produce 4.0 g of oxide X?
[Relative atomic mass: C, 12; O, 16; X, 64]
  1. 0.03                             C.  0.08
  2. 0.05                             D.  0.09

5.. What is the number of molecules in 1  mole of ammonia, NH3?
      [Avogadro’s constant: 6.0 x 1023 mol-1]
A.    1.5 x 1023 molecules
B.     6.0 x 1023 molecules
C.    1.2 x 1024 molecules
D.    2.4 x 1024 molecules

6. A compound with the formula X2CO3 has a relative formula mass of 138.
    What is the relative atomic mass of X?
     [Relative atomic mass: C=12, O=16]
  1. 39                                C.  78
  2. 69                                D.  110

7. The table shows the mass of elements M  and O in an oxide, and the relative  atomic mass  of elements M and O.


Element
M
O
Mass/g
5.6
2.4
Relative atomic mass
56
16


 The empirical formula for oxide M is
  1. M2O3                           C.  MO2
  2. M2O                            D.  MO
8. 5 g of element X reacted with 8  of element Y to form a compound with the formula XY2
      What is the relative atomic mass of element X?
      [Relative atomic mass of Y=80]
A.    25                                C.  50
B.     40                                D.  100

9. Which of the following statement is true for one mole of a substance?
A.    1 mol of copper contains 6.02 x 1023 molecules
B.     1 mol of oxygen gas contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms
C.    1 mol of water contains the same number of atoms as in 12g of carbon-12
D.    1 mol of carbon dioxide contains the same number of molecules as the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12


10. Table below shows two elements and their respective relative atomic mass.
      The letters used are not the actual symbol of  the elements.
Element
Relative atomic mass
X
24
M
12



      Which of  the following is true about the atoms of elements X and M?
A.    The mass of 1 mol of X is twice the mass of 1 mol of M
B.     1 mol of X has the same mass as 1 mol of M
C.       The mass of an atom of X is 24 g and the mass of an atom of M is 12 g
D.     The number of mole in 12 g of atom X is equal to the number of mole in 12 g of atom M.
11. A balloon contains 6.02 x 1023 of gas particles. What is the number of moles
     of the gas in the balloon?
     A  0.5 mol               C  3.0 mol
     B  1.0 mol               D  6.0 mol

12. One mole of a substance is defined as the quantity of a substance that contains the same number of particles in m g of element Y.  What are m and Y?

m
Y
A
2
Hydrogen - 1
B
12
Carbon - 12
C
14
Nitrogen - 14
D
16
Oxygen - 16


13. When 6.4 g oxide of M reacted completely with hydrogen gas, 4.48 g of metal M is produced. What is the empirical formula of the oxide?
      [Relative atomic mass:O,16; M,56]
A MO                     C M2O
B MO2                    D M2O3

14. Which of the following gases contains 0.4 mol of atoms at room temperature and pressure?
[1 mol of gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3at room temperature and pressure]
A  4.8 dm3 He       C  4.8 dm3 SO3
B  4.8 dm3 H2        D  4.8 dm3 CO2  

15. The following equation shows the decomposition reaction of copper(II) carbonate when heated at room temperature and pressure.
      CuCO3    CuO  +  CO2
Which of the following is not true when 1 mol of copper(II) carbonate is decomposed?
[Relative atomic mass: C = 12, O=16, Cu = 64 and 1 mol of gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure.]
A 1 mol of copper(II) oxide is formed
B 1 molecule of carbon dioxide gas is
    given off
C 80 g of copper(II) oxide is formed
D 24 dm3 of carbon dioxide gas is given off   

16. Which of the following contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms?
A 1 mol of nitrogen gas
B 1 mol of chlorine gas
C 1 mol of ammonia gas
D 1 mol of neon gas

 17. What is the number of moles of copper(II) nitrates in 56.4 g of copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2?
[Relative atomic mass: O=16, Cu=64, N=14]
A  0.30 mol             C  0.45 mol
B  0.32 mol             D  3.33 mol
  
18. Sodium reacts with chlorine to form sodium chloride.
            2Na  +  Cl2    2NaCl

19.  What is the mass of sodium chloride formed when 2.30 g of sodium reacts with excess chlorine?
[Relative atomic mass: Na=23, Cl=35.5]
A 2.93g           C 9.40g
B 5.85g           D 11.70g

20. The relative molecular mass of M2(SO4)3 is 342. What is the relative atomic mass of element M?
[Relative atomic mass: O=16, S=32]
A 27                C 118
B 53                D 123

21. A sample of iron oxide contains 5.6 g of iron and 2.4 g of oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this compound?
[Relative atomic mass: O=16, Fe=56]
A Fe2O3           C FeO2
B Fe3O4           D FeO

22. What is the minimum mass of zinc required to react with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 240 cm3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions?
[Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions;
Relative atomic mass: Zn = 65]
A 0.33 g          C 1.30 g
B 0.65 g          D 6.50 g

END OF QUESTIONS
THANK YOU
STEP UP YOUR EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENT RESULTS



 

Sunday, 8 May 2011

Saturday, 7 May 2011

SALTS

By NORINI BT JAAFAR


 

1.Definition: Salt is an ionic compound formed when the H+ ion in an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium, NH4+ ion.

e.g. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O


 


 

2. Salts can be classified into two main groups shown in Figure 1.


 

SALTS


 

Soluble Insoluble


 


 


 


 

Figure 1


 

3. (a) Effects of heat on carbonate salts.


 

Carbonate salt → Metal oxide + CO2

Δ


 

Example: Heating of copper(II) carbonate.


 

Chemical equation: CuCO3 → CuO + CO2

Observations: i. Green solid of copper(II) carbonate turns black solid of copper(II)

oxide.

ii. Gas passed through lime water will turn lime water chalky.

Other examples: (a) PbCO3 → PbO + CO2

Observations: i. Lead(II) oxide, PbO deposit is orange when hot, turns yellow when


cooled.

        ii. Lime water turns chalky.

         (b) ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2


 

Observations: i. Zinc oxide, ZnO deposit is yellow when hot, turns white when cooled.

ii. Lime water turns chalky.

Note: All carbonates salt will be decomposed by heat to produce metal oxide and carbon dioxide except sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 and potassium carbonate, K2CO3 which cannot be decomposed by heat.


 

3(b) Effects of heat on nitrate salt.

        Nitrate salt → metal oxide + NO2 + O2

Δ


 


Example: Heating of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2.


 


 


 


 


 

Chemical equation: 2Pb(NO3)2 → 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

Observations: i. Lead(II) oxide, PbO deposit is orange when hot, turns yellow when

cooled.

ii. When glowing wooden splinter is put inside the test tube, it


rekindles.

Oxygen, O2 gas produced.

iii. Brown gas released turns damp blue litmus paper to red.

Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 gas produced.

Other examples: 2Zn(NO3)2 → 2 ZnO + 4NO2 + O2

2Cu(NO3)2 → 2 CuO + 4NO2 + O2

Note: Sodium nitrate, NaNO3 and potassium nitrate, KNO3 when heated will decompose to produce nitrite salt and oxygen gas.

2NaNO3 → 2NaNO2 + O2

2KNO3 → 2KNO2 + O2


 

4. Preparation of Soluble Salts

Soluble salts can be prepared by the following methods:

    (i) Neutralization reaction: Acid + Alkali → Salt + H2O

This method is suitable for sodium, potassium and ammonium salts.

    (ii) Acids + Metal → Salts + H2

This method is not suitable for salts when the metal is below hydrogen in the

Electrochemical Series, e.g copper.

    (iii) Acid + Metal Oxide → Salt + H2O

    (iv) Acid + Metal Carbonates → Salt + H2O + CO2

Example: To
prepare of copper(II) sulphate salt

Substances: copper(II) oxide, sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm-3 solution.

Materials: beaker, 250 ml, filter funnel, glass rod, filter paper, evaporating dish, Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire gauze.

Procedures:

  1. Pour (50 – 100) cm3 of sulphuric acid solution into a beaker.
  2. Heat the acid.
  3. Copper(II) oxide powder is added into the acid until excess (to ensure that all the acid has completely reacted).
  4. Stir the mixture.
  5. Filter the mixture to remove the excess copper(II) oxide powder.
  6. Transfer the filtrate to an evaporating dish and heat the solution until saturated.

(To ensure the solution is saturated, dip a glass rod into the solution and take out. If there are crystals formed at the glass rod, this shows that the solution is saturated)

  1. Cool the saturated solution to room temperature.
  2. Filter the salt crystals formed and dry the salt with filter paper.


 


 

  1. Chemical equation: CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O


 

5. Preparation of insoluble salts.

Insoluble salts can be prepared by the precipitation or the double decomposition method. The general equation:

Salt solution of X + Salt solution of Y → Insoluble salt XY + Salt solution

Example: Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaClPbCl2 + 2NaNO3

(White precipitate)


 

Ionic equation: Pb2+ + 2Cl- → PbCl2

Example: To prepare silver chloride salt (an insolube salt)


 

Substances: silver nitrate solution, sodium chloride solution.


 

Apparatus: beaker, glass rod, filter funnel, evaporating dish, filter paper.


 

Procedures:


 

  1. (30 – 50) cm3 of silver nitrate solution is poured into a beaker.
  2. (30 – 50) cm3 of sodium chloride solution is added into the beaker.
  3. Stir the mixture.
  4. Filter the white precipate formed.
  5. Wash the residue (white precipitate) with distilled water.
  6. Dry the white powder with filter paper.
  7. Chemical equation: AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3
  8. Ionic equation: Ag+ + Cl- → AgCl
  9. White salt of siver chloride formed.

Tips: When you are required to prepare a salt, the first thing to do is to determine whether the salt to be prepared is soluble or insoluble. Then choose the suitable method to prepare the salt.

6. Numerical Problems Related to Salts.

Example: Excess zinc is added to 50 cm3 of sulphuric acid solution 1.0 mol dm-3 .

The chemical reaction is shown below:

Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2.

Calculate the mass of zinc sulphate salt formed from the reaction.

[ Relative atomic mass: O, 16, S, 32; Zn, 65;]


 

Solution: From the equation, 1 mol of H2SO4 ≡ 1 mol of ZnSO4

Number of moles of H2SO4 given = MV

1000

= 1.0 x 50

1000

= 0.05

Therefore, mass of ZnSO4 = 0.05 x (65 + 32 + 4(16))

= 8.05 g

Exercise

Objective Questions:

  1. Which of the following salts is not soluble in water?

    A Sodium carbonate

    B Silver nitrate

    C Lead(II) chloride

    D Zinc sulphate

  2. Which of the following equations is correct for the preparation of copper(II) sulphate?

    A Cu(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2 NaNO3

    B Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + 2H2O

    C Cu + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2

    D CuCO3 + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O + CO2

  3. When substance X is heated strongly, a type of gas and a black deposit were produced. The gas released turns lime water chalky. Which of the following is substance X?

    A Copper(II) oxide

    B Lead(II) carbonate

    C Copper(II) carbonate

    D Zinc carbonate

  4. Which of the following nitrates will not releases brown gas when heated strongly?

    A sodium nitrate

    B magnesium nitrate

    C lead(II) nitrate

    D zinc nitrate

  5. What will happen if an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is added to an aqueous solution of lead(II) nitrate?

    I The solution becomes acidic

    II Bubbles formed

    III Neutralisation reaction occurs

    IV White precipitate formed

    A I, II and III

    B I and II

    C II and IV

    D IV only

Structured Question.

The figure below shows some chemical reactions on X carbonate.


 

X carbonate Solution Y + H2O + Gas Z


 

X carbonate is a green coloured powder. When added with acid R, blue coloured solution Y and gas Z that turns lime water chalky are produced.

(a) (i) Name one acid that could be R.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 mark]

  1. Name solution X when acid in (a)(i) is used.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 mark]

(ii) Name gas Z.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 mark]

(b) X carbonate when heated strongly will also produce gas Z and a black deposit.

(i) Draw the apparatus set-up how the experiment can be carried out in the laboratory. Show also in your diagram how the gas can be tested.

[3 marks

(ii) Write the chemical equation for the heating of X carbonate.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 marks]

(c) You are required to prepare X carbonate salt in the laboratory.

(i) Name the two substances that are required to prepare the salt.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[2 marks]

(ii) Name the type of reaction for the preparation of the salt above.

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 mark]

Answers:

Objective Questions.

1. C 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. D

Structured Questions

  1. (i) sulphuric acid

    (ii) copper(II) sulphate

    1. carbon dioxide

(b)(i)


 

(ii) CuCO3 → CuO + CO2

(c)(i) Copper(II) nitrate and sodium carbonate

(ii) precipitation/ double decomposition method.